Libya

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 Higher Education and Scientific Research in Lybia: Reality and Ambitions
Libya?s ability to build a strong and diversified economy will depend on its commitment to innovation, creativity and commercialisation within the higher education and scientific research sector. The status of this sector in Libya could be characterised as follows: First, scientific research and development funding is very scarce standing at less than 0.05% of GDP or $120 million ? just $20 spent on scientific research and development per person in Libya according to governmental data. Furthermore, there is no real commitment to scientific research in Libyan universities and the country does not benefit from generous international grants in the fields of scientific and social research because of the absence of any cohesive vision for the sector. Elsewhere, the private sector usually plays an integral role in the higher education and scientific research sector through partnerships, funding and collaborative projects. However, Libya has no effective, responsible private sector, able and willing to do this. Second, human resources in the field of scientific research and development are insufficient and mismanaged. In addition, the education, higher education and scientific research sectors in Libya are negative traditional learning environments where creativity and innovation are almost non-existent among staff and students. The education sector in Libya lost its purpose when the focus on the end-product of the educational process was lost. That led to lack of fully qualified and skilfully equipped university graduate population.